These guiding principles for ontology are consistently based on scientific materialism:
Ontology: 10 guiding principles according to Mario Bunge
- The world exists by itself whether we explore it or not.
- The world consists exclusively of things - that is, of concrete, material things.
- Shapes, structures are properties of things and not things that exist on their own.
- Things are grouped into systems: each thing is either a system or part of a system.
- All real things change.
- Nothing arises from nothing - no thing disappears into nothing.
- All things obey laws, everything is thus determined, and there are no miracles.
- There are different types of laws. There are causal, stochastic, among others
Laws and mixtures of them.
- The real things occur in different organizational levels. It
gives a physical, chemical, biological, social
and a technological level. Connections come between these levels
as the occurrence of the biosocial level shows. Farther
levels can branch out further, as is evident from the occurrence of socio-economic
Level can be observed.
- All systems have properties that the components lack and
are called emergent properties.
Heinz W. Droste: Communication - planning and shaping public opinion;
Volume 1: Basics - Chapter 5, p. 149
Ontology of communication technology 1:
Determination of structure and substance of human communication
- Bunge, Mario; Rubén Ardila; Philosophy of Psychology (1990) p. 28
- Bunge, Mario; Martin Mahner; Philosophical foundations of biology (2000) pp. 3–48